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Journal of Applied Genetics 51(1), 2010, pp. 37-50

Transcriptomic signature of cell lines isolated from canine mammary adenocarcinoma metastases to lungs

M. Krol, J. Polanska, K.M. Pawlowski, P. Turowski, J. Skierski, A. Majewska, M. Ugorski, R.E. Morty, T. Motyl

Abstract: Metastasis is a final step in the progression of mammary gland cancer, usually leading to death. Potentially, a molecular signature of metastasis can be defined via comparison of primary tumors with their metastases. Currently, there is no data in the literature regarding the molecular portrait of metastases in dogs and only few reports regarding human cancer. This is the first report describing the transcriptomic signature of canine cancer metastatic cells. Two adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from the canine mammary gland (CMT-W1 and CMT-W2) were compared with cell lines isolated from their lung metastases (CMT-W1M and CMT-W2M) with regards to the following cytometric parameters: cell cycle, ploidy, Bcl-2 expression, susceptibility to induced apoptosis, and transcriptomic profile. Cytometric analyses revealed significant differences in cell cycle and antiapoptotic potential between the examined cells. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we found 104 up-regulated genes in the metastatic cell line CMT-W1M and 21 up-regulated genes in the primary CMT-W1 cell line. We also found 83 up-regulated genes in the CMT-W2M cell line and only 21 up-regulated genes in the CMT-W2 cell line. Among the up-regulated genes in both metastatic cell lines, we found 15 common genes. These differently expressed genes are involved mainly in signal transduction, cell structure and motility, nucleic acid metabolism, developmental processing, and apoptosis (GHSR, RASSF1, ARF1GAP, WDR74, SMOC2, SFRP4, DIAPH1, FSCN1, ALX4, SNX15, PLD2, WNT7B, POU6F2, NKG7, and POLR2F). Seven of them are involved in a cellular pathway dependent on ghrelin via growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Our results suggest that this pathway may be essential for mammary cancer cells to have a metastatic potential.

Key words: canine mammary cancer, lung metastasis, microarray, transcriptomics

Correspondence: T. Motyl, Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland; e-mail:

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